WCC-97 Annual Meeting, Bozeman, MT 59717
July 16-17, 1999
Dean Sharron Quisenberry of the College of Agriculture, Montana State University, welcomed the group. The group picked Manhattan, KS as the site of the next meeting, probably in May or June of 2000. Bill Baukus will serve as chairman of WCC-97 for this meeting. Davis, CA was picked as the site for the 2001 meeting with Lee Jackson serving as chairman. Len Francl and Bob Forster were selected to write the petition to the Western Directors for continuation of WCC-97. It will be presented to the directors at their April, 2000 meeting.
State reports were given as follows:
Report by Lee Jackson
General. Small grains in California are sown in the fall throughout most of the state and are comprised primarily of hard red spring and durum wheat and 6-row spring feed barley. Substantial spring-sown spring barley also is produced in the intermountain area of NE California (Tulelake/Klamath basin). The fall-sown small grain crop for the 1999 season in California included nearly 569,000 acres of wheat (including 89,000 acres of durum wheat), 170,000 acres of barley, and 310,000 acres of oat. Leading wheat cultivars (non-durum) by acreage were Yecora Rojo (113,280 acres), RSI 5 (109,081 acres), Brooks (90,000 acres), and Express (58,911 acres). Those four cultivars accounted for over 77% of non-durum acreage. Yecora Rojo, Brooks, and RSI 5 predominated in the San Joaquin Valley while Express and RSI 5 predominated in the Sacramento Valley. Kronos was the leading durum wheat cultivar and accounted for 70% of the durum wheat acreage. The acreage of Kronos (and total durum wheat) was split nearly evenly between the San Joaquin Valley and southern California (Imperial Valley). Crop performance was much better this year than in 1998 when excessive rainfall resulted in high disease and weed pressure, severe lodging, and substantial yield losses. This seasons crop looked excellent well into April. Temperatures were cooler than normal through early spring, with about 1000 fewer growing degree-days than normal accumulated in major growing regions. Rainfall amounts were average to substantially less than average in key areas of the state. Freezing temperatures during the Easter weekend caused frost injury (resulting in moderate to complete sterility) in fields of wheat and barley in the Central Valley that were flowering or beginning to flower at that time. Some damaged fields were harvested for forage. Late planted fields were not in a vulnerable stage so escaped damage. Total damaged acreage is unknown. Disease levels were lower than in 1998, although several diseases reached severe levels in some regions of the state.
Barley scald. Barley scald (caused by Rhynchosporium secalis) was severe on barley in nurseries in the Sacramento Valley. Disease severity reached 100% on the most susceptible barleys. The new cultivar UC 937 showed excellent resistance, as did UC 603 and Nebula.
Barley stripe rust. Barley stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis) reached disease severity of 50-100% on susceptible lines in both the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Valley. A Section 18 Emergency Statewide Label was approved for the fungicide Folicur for use in controlling the disease. Resistance of UC 937, the new cultivar for fall-sowing in the Central Valley, again held up well. UC 603 also had very low stripe rust severity.
Wheat stripe rust. Severe wheat stripe rust occurred in the Sacramento Valley. I first observed it in mid-April on the cultivar Express in Colusa and Sutter counties. Temperatures remained relatively cool and stripe rust continued to develop. By early May, commercial fields of the main cultivars of the region, Express and RSI 5, were affected, with RSI 5 apparently supporting more profuse sporulation than Express. Fields in growth stages from early fill to soft dough in Sutter, Colusa, and Yolo counties had disease levels ranging from 1% incidence/1% severity to 100% incidence/80% severity in early May. Fields that were sown later than most fields in the area were most severely affected.
Septoria tritici blotch. Septoria tritici blotch, although less severe than in 1998, was severe on early sown wheat in the Sacramento Valley, even on previously resistant cultivars and breeding lines. It reached disease severity of 50-100% on susceptible lines in the Sacramento Valley nurseries.
Grain harvest of fall-sown statewide test plots is complete, and yields have been very high, often despite the occurrence of the diseases noted above. Irrigated barley yields of UC 937 ranged from 4 to 5 tons/acre. In comparison, yields of the cultivar Max, susceptible to both scald and stripe rust, ranged from 1 to 1.5 tons/acre. Rainfed barley yields were in the 1.5 to 2 ton/acre range. Wheat yields were high throughout the Central Valley, with the best lines yielding from 3.5 to 5 tons/acre. RSI 5 had very good yields despite high stripe rust severity, yielding from 3 to 3.5 tons/acre even with stripe rust severity of 50-90%.
Black-tip. Black-tip was severe on durum wheat last season because of late-season rainfall and lodging. It was virtually absent this season.
Rice blast. No update yet from last season when blast affected 70,000 acres of rice in California and some fields lost about 50% of their yield. Neck blast syndrome was most important. The disease occurred because of high humidity conditions last summer. One race was identified; the same as was found in Hawaii in breeding nurseries.
Corn stunt spiroplasma. No update yet from last season when Corn stunt affected silage corn and some feed corn acreage. There was substantial yield loss, and stunting of corn from Tulare Co north to Fresno Co in the San Joaquin Valley.
Personnel. The major news is that we have a new Dean for the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at UC Davis Neal Van Alfen. His appointment is effective September 1,1999. Neal received his PhD in Plant Pathology from UC Davis in 1972 under Tsune Kosuge, and most recently was head of the Plant Pathology and Microbiology Department at Texas A&M. We also have a new chair in the Department of Agronomy & Range Sciences at UC Davis, Paul Gepts. Paul has been in the Department for about 17 years and is a legume geneticist.
From South Dakota:
Fungal diseases of small grains--
Report by Y. Jin
Disease Development: Leaf rust developed into epidemic proportion on winter and spring wheat due to early disease onset, favorable weather conditions, and susceptibility of many cultivars grown in the region. Leaf rust on rye was widespread, but moderate in severity. Crown rust was moderate on oats and negligible on barley. Stem rusts of barley and oats were observed, but in a low incidence. A winter wheat cultivar susceptible to stem rust was widely grown in SD, and as a result, we experienced the highest stem rust in commercial production in decades. Losses due to stem rust are expected in some fields. Septoria leaf blotch was light to moderate across the state and severe on spring wheat in the north central region of the state. Tan spot was severe in winter wheat across the state because a large portion of winter wheat was planted into spring wheat stubble and adequate moisture promoted early disease development. Scab (Fusarium head blight) on spring and winter wheat was moderate to severe in eastern, and light in central and western SD. This was the highest scab on winter wheat we have seen in South Dakota.
Research: My research focuses on sources and genetics of resistance to major diseases (scab, stem rust, leaf rust, and tan spot) in wheat, epidemiology of scab and leaf spots, and developing multiple disease resistance in spring and winter wheat cultivars. Search for new scab resistance focuses on screening of the USDA wheat collection from targeted regions of the world and introduction of elite scab resistant germplasm from foreign countries. New resistances to stem rust, leaf rust, and tan spot from interspecific hybrids (wheat-Agropyron) were identified. Genetic studies of these resistances are in progress. Epidemiological studies include monitoring inoculum levels, effects of environments on inoculum production, and survival of the scab pathogen (Fusarium graminearum). Crown rust of barley, a new disease on barley, rye and forage grasses in the region, is being monitored through regional trapping nurseries and field surveys. Targeted diseases in breeding include: scab in spring wheat (through intensive field and greenhouse screening of all generations), stem rust in spring and winter wheat (early generation selection through seedling evaluation and field nurseries), leaf spots and root rots (nurseries in wheat stubble and artificial inoculation), and leaf rust (late planting).
Viral diseases of wheat and small grains--M. Langham
This research focuses primarily on wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and the development of winter wheat varieties which are resistant to WSMV. Current research projects include greenhouse screening of resistant materials and breeding lines, field screening of breeding lines, field studies on the effect of inoculation date on disease severity, and field studies on the response to different concentrations of WSMV inoculum.
Diagnosis of field samples has demonstrated more positive WSMV samples from the eastern half of South Dakota than in previous years. These samples have been from both spring and winter wheat. One positive identification of WSMV from corn has also been recorded this spring in Brookings. Incidence of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in spring wheat appears to be higher than normal this spring. Wheat fields infected by both BYDV and WSMV have also been identified.
Chemical control of diseases in small grains--M. Draper
Several fungicides are under evaluations for seed treatment and foliar applications in spring and winter wheat at multiple locations. Foliar fungicides for winter wheat are being tested. Ten products or treatment combinations are included at two locations. Foliar fungicides for spring wheat are also being tested. Sixteen products or treatment combinations are included at two locations. Suppression of Fusarium head blight (scab) with fungicides applied at flowering are being tested in hard red spring wheat at two locations and hard red winter wheat in one location in SD. A grower scale trial is being conducted to compare ground and aerial application of Folicur for scab suppression on spring wheat. Two nozzle types with 5 or 10 gallons of water by air and 7 or 14 gallons of water by ground with each nozzle type are included. The trial is being run in three grower fields. Previous year's data have indicated improved yield of oat grain with multiple applications of mancozeb, even in the absence of apparent disease pressure. A study is in its second year to further investigate the effect of mancozeb, applied at various stages of crop development, on disease suppression and yield, and to determine if that effect can be stimulated with one properly timed fungicide application.
Biocontrol of wheat diseases--B. Bleakley
Bacillus strains isolated from South Dakota wheat foliage are being evaluated as biocontrol agents to antagonize pathogens of tan spot and scab. In greenhouse trials assaying the ability of the Bacillus strains to reduce tan spot symptoms on wheat, tan spot symptoms were reduced by 26 to 36 percent as a result of treatment with whole cells of bacteria, depending on the bacterial strain. Similarly, tan spot symptoms were reduced by 21 to 40 percent when cell-free concentrated culture extracts of the bacterial strains were sprayed onto wheat seedling foliage. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the ethyl acetate extracts showed that some but not all of the separated compounds could antagonize growth of the tan spot fungus. During the summer of 1998 cell-free extracts of two of the Bacillus strains were sprayed onto heads of wheat plants during anthesis in a disease nursery that was infested with the head blight fungus. Although there was extensive development of head blight symptoms on all treatments, wheat receiving the cell-free extract spray had from 16 to 30 percent less head blight than control plants that did not receive the spray.
From North Dakota:
The 1999 growing season so far is wetter than normal, leading to higher than average small grain disease pressure. Planting occurred before and after a three-week rainy period in May, which resulted in two distinct crop maturities. On wheat, tan spot has been the most common and serious leaf disease. Stagonospora leaf blotch and leaf rust are also widespread. The latest reports from the Cereal Disease Lab suggest that leaf rust may be making a comeback in the upper Midwest. Aphid migration was fairly successful and barley yellow dwarf is present in many fields. On barley, spot blotch is common. Fusarium head blight is showing up in early planted fields. Severity levels are low so far but crops have another week or two before ripening.
A small grain disease scouting program managed by Dr. Marcia McMullen has grown to encompass most of the important production areas. Weekly crop reports can be found on the web atwww.ext.nodak.edu/extnews/pestreport/ . In addition, infection periods of tan spot, Stagonospora blotch and scab are being forecasted on a regional basis for the first time this year. Forecasts are available to growers and other agriculturalists on the web at: www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/cropdisease/ and by calling a toll-free number. Race 5 of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis was found on durum in Langdon, ND in 1998. This is the first report of race 5 from North America.
From Minnesota -
Report by Ruth Dill-Macky:
The 1999 Minnesota spring wheat crop is estimated at 2.2 million acres, up 250,000 acres from last year. Durum wheat is estimated at 10,000 acres, up 5,000 from 1998. Winter wheat acres is estimated at 65,000 acres, up 5,000 acres from 1998. Minnesotas barley acerage decreased 55% from last years as farmers planted 200,000 acres. This acerage is a record low for the state. The Red River Valley experienced a prolonged period of spring rainfall that resulted in some areas not being planted and in the failure of some planted and replanted fields. At the time of writing (July 14, 1999) most crops were at the grain filling stage and cool nights and average temperatures during the day. High aphid numbers have been reported and BYDV symptoms are evident in many fields, especially of late planted wheat. Yellowing of flag leaves on barley has also been reported. The first symptoms of scab in wheat have been reported in commercial fields over the week of July 7th. At the present time infection levels remain low (generally less than 5% incidence) but heavy rains thus far in July and continued storm activity throughout the northwest portion of the state suggest that disease levels may increase significantly in the next two weeks. Spraying with Folicur and Tilt has started.
Wheat leaf rust has been observed throughout the state, generally at levels below 5% severity. Wheat leaf rust severities of up to 40% have been reported in breeding plots at southern locations in Minnesota. The level of leaf rust has caused some concern but fungicide applications will likely provide some protection. Foci of wheat stem rust were reported in Baart wheat in west central Minnesota in late June.
From Oregon -
Report submitted by Chris Mundt:
Crop condition - Much of eastern Oregon has experienced rainfall substantially below average, especially in late spring. As a result, yields will clearly be reduced, and some growers will experience very substantial losses for both the winter and spring crops.
Winter wheat acreage in the Willamette Valley is down to only 61,000 Acres this year, primariliy due to low wheat prices and very favorable
Prices for grass seed. There is a continuing trend towards continuous spring grain instead of summer fallow/winter wheat production in eastern Oregon. No-till is Also becoming much more popular. Growers are committed to these changes, but are concerned about the potential disease implications.
Cephalosporium stripe - continues to be a devastating disease for eastern Oregon growers, especially at sites 2000 ft. elevation and above. Cephalosporium has been fairly severe this year due to freeze/thaw events that ocurred in the winter, and the high inoculum loads that are present in some fields. Interestingly, I just yesterday saw a SPRING wheat field that was heavily infected with Cephalosporium stripe in Condon, Oregon (3,000 ft. elevation). We are continuing to work with breeders and geneticists to develop resistant varieties.
A couple of interesting observations that you might want to discuss and comment on:
1) Several observations suggest that club wheats are significantly more resistant than common soft white winter wheats in Oregon. In the past, I had my club and common wheats at separate locations so could not make a direct comparison. This club versus common wheat difference seems to be supported by some recent grower comments and also by growth chamber studies we are doing. It might be that this has been common knowledge that I've just missed in the past. Wouldn't be the first time. Any comments?
2) We have the beginnings of some information to suggest that resistance to toxin might impart resistance to Cephalosporium stripe. Could provide for an easy screening technique if this pans out. We have detected night/day differences in reaction to toxin in the parents of a mapping population - a study done in cooperation with Oscar Riera-Lizarazu.
Eyespot (strawbreaker foot rot) - this season has not been highly conducive. In addition, many growers have switched to "VPM" varieties in areas where this disease has typically been a problem. The VPM gene has been incorporated into most new lines recently. Breeders and geneticists at OSU are also trying to bring in other sources of resistance so that we do not become over-dependent on the VPM gene.
Wheat rusts - will likely be insignificant this year due to dry conditions in late spring.
Barley stripe rust - not much seen in eastern Oregon yet this year. Not expected to be a problem due to dry weather. However, the crop is Still at a very early stage in our main spring barley belt in the Klamath Basin. Last year, there was an area-wide yield loss of 20% in the Klamath Falls area.
Septoria - this has been the lightest Septoria year in the Willamette Valley in perhaps ten years, though the disease was still significant. There were only a few rain events in the April-May period. This made Homo sapiens VERY happy, but didn't do much for Mycosphaerella graminicola. It now seems quite clear that major genes are unstable in the Willamette Valley, at least the one gene we have tried (probably Stb4) and that quantitative resistance also erodes (but over a much longer period of time).
Barley yellow dwarf - has been heavy in the Willamette Valley, but not eastern Oregon, this year. Was heavy across the entire state last year. We are now looking at BYDV as one that we can longer ignore, and will be incorporating BYDV resistance into the breeding programs.
Personnel - Jim Peterson became the new OSU wheat breeder within the Last year. Jim is doing an excellent job and has already become an Important colleague for many of us.
We are also highly pleased to have Oscar Riera-Lizarazu join us as the new cereals biotechnologist in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Oscar is a very bright and Dynamic fellow, and has already jumped into disease problems in a significant way.
Report by William W. Bockus and Robert L. Bowden
The biggest news in Kansas' wheat production is the release of two high-yielding hard white winter wheat cultivars (Heyne and Betty). They have disease resistance ratings similar to the current popular hard red winter cultivar Jagger that had at least moderate resistance to 10 diseases when it was released. It is anticipated that about 5% of the acreage will be planted to hard white winter wheat in fall, 2000 and about 20% in fall, 2001. This represents a dramatic shift from the hard red cultivars, produced in Kansas for over 100 years, to hard white cultivars. The Hays wheat-breeding effort of Kansas State University, headed up by Dr. Joe Martin, is almost exclusively devoted to hard white wheat development.
Dr. Rollie Sears, long-time KSU wheat breeder at Manhattan, has resigned to take a position with Agri-Pro as a wheat breeder. The search for a replacement for him has begun with a closing date of October 15, 1999. His commitment to breeding disease-resistant cultivars such as Karl and Jagger was very productive. Although final estimates of disease losses during 1998-1999 have not been produced, it is anticipated that all diseases collectively will be estimated to have caused about 10-12% loss in production. The following diseases were prevalent in the Kansas wheat crop. They are not listed in any particular order.
Wheat streak mosaic was present in the western half of the state with the northwest area having the most problems. Because the two most popular cultivars in the state (Jagger and 2137) have moderate resistance, losses will not be as great as they might have been.
Wheat soilborne mosaic and spindle streak mosaic continued their western migration. They were discovered in some western Kansas areas where they had not been seen before. In southwest Kansas, they occur in wheat under center pivot irrigation. Because most current cultivars have high levels of resistance, losses should not be high. Over the last 20 years, annual statewide losses from these viruses have dropped from 5% to less than 1% due to the effort to produce resistant cultivars.
Barley yellow dwarf occurred in the southeast section of the state, its traditional area of importance.
Leaf rust was not as severe as in some recent years; however, several cultivars that were previously resistant showed an increase in susceptibility including Custer, Jagger, Heyne, and Big Dawg.
Speckled leaf blotch (caused by Septoria tritici) was very common early in the season but only became severe on the flag leaves in a few areas.
Tan spot was very prevalent in the central and eastern area of the state except in the southeast corner. Current levels of resistance in popular cultivars prevented this from being an epidemic year for tan spot.
Black chaff was the most prevalent that it has ever been in Kansas with losses experienced in the eastern third to half of the state.
Scab (Fusarium head blight) occurred in the northeast part of the state where incidences of 50% were common. The popular cultivar in the area (2137) is very susceptible. Scab is one of the major reasons that very little wheat is produced in northeast Kansas. There was also some scab in the southeast corner with incidences of 5-10%.
Nodorum leaf and glume blotch (caused by Stagonospora nodorum) (central Kansas), downy mildew (central, southcentral), loose smut (entire state), strawbreaker (northcentral, southcentral), and take-all (central, southcentral) were problems in certain areas but statewide losses will be small.
Powdery mildew and Cephalosporium stripe only occurred in trace amounts. As mentioned above, the decline of soilborne mosaic as a result of breeding for resistance is a plant pathology success story in Kansas. Similarly, the decline of Cephalosporium stripe to trace levels was a result of the release of moderately resistant cultivars. The historical record of the effort made by breeders to incorporate disease resistance is illustrated by the number of diseases to which wheat cultivars have been resistant when they were released. As examples, Scout (released in 1967) was resistant to 1 disease when it was released, Eagle (1970) was resistant to 1 disease, Newton (1977) was resistant to 4, Arkan (1982) was resistant to 7, Karl (1988) was resistant to 9, and Jagger (1994) was resistant to 10. Clearly, breeders have given increasing effort to developing cultivars with disease resistance
Report by John Watkins:
Leaf Rust: In 1999 leaf rust was moderately severe along the southern tier of counties adjacent to Kansas. Some fields in eastern Nebraska also showed a moderately severe level of leaf rust. Leaf rust developed slowly in June; thus had minimal impact of yields.
In 1998, 178 leaf rust isolates were collected from all wheat growing regions of Nebraska. Each field isolate was typed as to virulence phenotype on a set of 16 single gene differentials. The 1998 Nebraska leaf rust population separated into 43 different virulence phenotypes with the majority of isolates being classified into virulence phenotypes MDRM (virulent on host genes Lr 1,3,3ka, 10, 11,18, 23,24,and 30) and MDRR (virulent on host genes Lr 1, 3, 3ka, 10, 11, 23, 24, and 30). Host genes Lr 3ka, 11, and 30 are becoming increasingly more susceptible to current leaf rust populations where as host genes Lr 9, 16, 17, 21, and 26 continue to show a relatively stable resistance to the current rust races in Nebraska.
Virus Diseases: Soilborne wheat mosaic and wheat spindle streak were active during April and May. Incidence of soilbone mosaic was high in eastern Nebraska, but severity within fields was light to moderate. Some fields tested positive for both soilborne mosaic and spindle streak.
A background level of wheat streak mosaic was found in surveys of fields in west central Nebraska and the Nebraska Panhandle. Severity was high in only a few isolated fields with the outbreaks in these fields being associated with the presence of volunteer wheat the previous summer. Some fields also tested positive for High Plains Disease.
Barley yellow dwarf incidence was high in eastern and south central Nebraska but severity was light. The low severity probably was due to spring infection rather than fall infection.
Tan Spot and Septoria Leaf Blotch: Due to wet weather in May and early June, the incidence of both diseases was high across southern and western Nebraska. Tan spot was the predominant leaf spotting disease, particularly where residue was present in or adjacent to production fields. Severity on flag leaves was light to moderate.
Root Diseases: Wheat came through winter in good condition with little stand loss due to winter injury or Bipolaris crown rot. Those fields with severe crown rot were usually associated with loose seedbeds following planting last fall. Cephalosporium stripe was present in background levels in a number of fields in western Nebraska. Take-all incidence was sporadic in eastern and central Nebraska. The only reported severe case of take-all involved a field of wheat planted into an area that had been in CRP grasses for several years. Fusarium foot rot caused some white heads to appear as the wheat matured. The grain in affected plants was shriveled and roots were discolored.
Head Diseases: Scab and black chaff were the most evident head diseases developing during the grain filling and maturity periods. In a few fields scab was moderately severe and did result in the grain from one field being rejected by the local elevator.
Overall Disease Picture: Wheat yields across Nebraska should be good in 1999 with diseases playing only a moderate role in total production
A great deal of effort is being expended on developing both winter and spring wheat cultivars with resistance to wheat streak mosaic. Two sources of resistance are being used. One is from an Agropyron species, and one is involved in a genetically engineered wheat plant with the gene for the virus coat protein. Hand inoculation of field plots revealed big differences in response. Two graduate student theses are involved with this work which is a cooperative project involving plant virologists and plant geneticists/plant breeders.
Survival of karnal bunt teliospores is being investigated in contained plots located near the Montana State University campus. After two winters of exposure, teliospores can still be recovered that are viable, though the numbers of spores recovered has dropped. This work will be conducted through one more winter cycle.
Bill Grey reported on his work with precision agriculture using GPS and GIS systems to keep track of wheat diseases as they affect yield and protein content. This is a cooperative project involving entomology, weed scientists, and plant pathology.
Bob Johnston reported on work on seed treatments. Special emphasis is being given to durum wheats which seem to be more susceptible to organisms that cause emergence problems, particularly Pythium species. Age of seed seems to be a factor as well, with older seed being much more susceptible. Treatment with metalaxyl provides excellent control of Pythium. Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium culmorum is another disease being studied. Several of the commonly used seed treatments are being tested on a wide range of cultivars of spring wheat, durum wheat, and winter wheat. Dividend seed treatment appears to be slightly more effective than raxil-thiram or imazalil.
Report by Bob Forster:
Wheat streak mosaic/high plains disease Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) of wheat seems to be occurring more frequently than usual in spring wheat the past two years in southern Idaho. Furthermore, we have very little data to indicate how prevalent high plains virus (HPV) -infected wheat is in Idaho. Eighteen wheat samples, most with distinct WSM symptoms, were sent to Dallas Seifers at Hays, KS, to test for the presence of WSMV and HPV. Thirteen of the 18 samples were positive for WSMV; one sample had both viruses; and one of four tillers from one field tested weakly positive for HPV, only.
In another survey of two wheat fields, wheat leaves with mosaic symptoms across the entire blade ("complete mosaic") and those with mosaic symptoms confined to stripes ("striped mosaic") were tested against four antisera (specific for WSMV, HPV, AWStMV, and AMV). WSMV was detected in all leaves, and none of the other three viruses were detected. Thus, based on these limited surveys and other information, HPV occurs infrequently and to a very limited extent in wheat in Idaho.
Current disease situation Foot rot (Pseudocercosporella) was unusually severe in several irrigated winter wheat fields in Bingham and Minidoka counties this spring. In at least two fields, the incidence was 100% with multiple, large lesions present. Harvest samples will be collected to provide an estimate of "worst case" yield losses for future reference.
Barley stripe rust (BSR) has been almost non-existant in Idaho this year. However, there was a
severely diseased field of 1202 spring barley near Blackfoot (Bingham county) and a trace amount in a trial at Kimberly. There was also a report of BSR in some winter barley in the Lewiston area. A trial to determine the efficacy and economic benefit of late season applications of Tilt, Folicur, Quadris, and Statego was planned but has been postponed until next year due to the low occurrence of BSR in 1999.
New project Idaho will participate in a tri-state ARS project on cereal root diseases which recently received funding. The objectives are to: 1) Identify useful germplasm against cereal root diseases such as take-all, Rhizoctonia root rot, Pythium root rot, and Fusarium root rot; 2) Reveal the diversity of root disease pathogens of wheat and barley; and 3) Determine the cropping system influences on pathogen population diversity, dynamics, and disease suppressiveness of the soil. A full-time support scientist will be hired to work on this.
Robert Johnston - Montana State University
Bill Grey - Montana State University
Don Mathre - Montana State University
Jack Riesselman - Montana State University
Bill Brown Colorado State University
Joe Hill Colorado State University
Dale Clark Western Plant Breeders, Bozeman, Montana
Roland Line USDA Washington State University
Randy Scott Gustafson, Inc, Boise, Idaho
Bill Bockus Kansas State University
Mark Davis Kansas State University
Len Francl North Dakota State University
Yue Jin South Dakota State University
Xianming Chen USDA Washington State University
Vidal Velasco Colorado State University
Linnea Skoglund Busch Ag Resources Fort Collins, Colorado
Ruth Dill-Macky University of Minnesota
Lee Jackson University of California Davis
Bob Forster University of Idaho
John Watkins University of Nebraska
Also attending from Western Wheat Workers:
Sally Metz Monsanto St. Louis, Missouri
Bob Zemetra University of Idaho, Moscow
Mary Guttieri University of Idaho, Aberdeen
Stephen Guy University of Idaho, Moscow
Audrey Bousquet Western Plant Breeders, Bozeman, MT
Luther Talbert Montana State University
Sarah Ward Colorado State University
Craig Cook Western Plant Breeders, Bozeman, MT
Ron Barnett University of Florida
Dan Biggerstaff, Western Plant Breeders, Bozeman, MT
K. Krishnamurthy, Montana State University
Eric Smidansky - Montana State University
Peggy Lamb Montana State University, Huntley
Jack Martin, Montana State University
Becky Murphy - Montana State University, Moccasin
Doug Holen - Montana State University, Kalispell
Al Carleton Arizona Plant Breeders, Phoenix
Charles Erickson USDA Aberdeen, Idaho
Rob Graf Ag and Agrifood Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta
Mike Giroux - Montana State University
Phil Bruckner - Montana State University
Ed Souza University of Idaho, Aberdeen
Karim Ammar Oregon State University
Ken Kephart - Montana State University, Huntley
Bob Graybosch ARS, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Gail Sharp - Montana State University