EXAM 3 Questions
Soil Testing and Modification: Ag vs turf thru CEC
Does sand have a low, medium, or high CEC?
Name three reasons why soil testing is needed.
Describe the differences between Ag soil and Turf soil.
What is CEC measured in?
The higher the CEC in the soil, the soil will have a more ____________ charge.
What ion does the plant release into the soil?
What does a large amount of sodium do to the CEC?
Does organic matter have a high or low CEC compared to sand, silt, and clay?
What types of traffic is turf subjected to that is different from Ag soils?
CEC is not a measure of actual soil fertility, but of ____________ soil fertility.
In general, which type of field, turf or agronomic, undergoes initial extensive lengths to modify the soil?
Soil Testing and Modification: pH thru plant tissue testing
How drastically will buffered soil pH change?
Why do you need to take a soil sample with a plant tissue sample?
How many soil samples should be taken and at what depth?
Name three soils factors you can measure on a soil test.
What is the recommended BCSR for turf?
What does SLAN stand for?
What does BCSR stand for?
If your soil is acidic and you need to raise the pH, what could you add?
What does CEC stand for? What is CEC?
Why is nitrogen not tested for in soil samples?
Is it effective to apply gypsum to Montana soils?
Is gypsum effective on any soil?
Is it effect to apply sulfates to Montana soils?
Why is pH important?
What is pH?
Ag soil test results will generally tell you that more phosphorus needs to be applied (overestimates the amount of P needed) than is needed for turfgrasses. Why?
Ag soil test results will generally tell you that less potassium needs to be applied (underestimates the amount of K needed) than is needed for turfgrass. Why?
What should you do if a soil test tells you that you have a micronutrient deficiency?
Turf Fertilization: Learning your NPK’s & Liquid vs Granular
What do the three numbers on a bag of fertilizer stand for, in order?
What two of these macronutrients need an extra conversion factor for fertilizer calculations? What are the conversion factors?
What is the most-used nutrient for mature turfgrass?
Why are secondary elements, secondary?
Why is phosphorus important for plants?
What is the role of potassium in plants?
List one of the desirable features of natural organics.
List one of the undesirable features of natural organics.
What are 2 of the 5 paths of nitrogen loss in turf?
Does liquid or granular burn turf easier?
Which form of fertilizer is generally more expensive, liquid or granular?
How can you tell if you have nitrogen deficiency?
What are the three forms of nitrogen?
What are the burn potential, leaching potential, greening rate, and lasting potential for each of the three forms of nitrogen?
What are the pros and cons of using a liquid fertilizer? granular fertilizer?
Turf Fertilization: Essential elements thru potassium
What role in the plant does potassium play?
Do soil test interpretation usually over or under estimate the potassium level?
Potassium helps out the plant by _______________________ and _______________________.
When calculating how much potassium is in a fertilizer you will need to multiply the K2O amount by what percent?
Potassium is taken up as a ___________________ (cation or anion) and is susceptible to _________________, especially in sandy soils.
What symptoms might you see in a plant with potassium deficiency?
A plant with potassium toxicity will have deficiencies in ___________________ and _____________________.
What is the dry weight of potassium in a plant?
Same questions as above for phosphorus.
Name the 17 essential elements.
Which essential element makes up 45% of the plant on a dry weight basis?
What three elements comprise 94% of the plant on a dry weight basis?
Turfgrass fertilization programs are generally based around which element?
If you fertilize once a year, when should you fertilize? Twice a year? Three times a year? Four times a year? Why?
What are the 4 sources of phosphorus fertilizer?
What are the 3 sources of potassium fertilizer?
Turf Fertilization: Sulfur thru comparison of deficiency symptoms
What type of soils cause Iron deficiencies?
What is sulfur's role in the plant?
What are symptoms of sulfur deficiency and toxicity?
How many generations is nickel held in the seed before deficiency symptoms can occur?
________ is a building block for cell wall membranes.
________ is important as the central ion in chlorophyll molecule.
________ is important for enzyme activation.
Yellowing and white mottling are deficiency symptoms of __________.
Name three of the 7 micronutrients.
Why are micronutrients called that?
What micronutrient causes severely stunted growth when deficient?
Which micronutient is a cell wall component?
Even though we have references for what each deficiency symptom looks like, why do you generally need to also soil test?
Disease and Pest Control: Insects & Control
What are three control options for soil inhabiting insects?
List two common insects that we learned about.
Give two examples of endophytic grasses.
Which chemical control method has a quicker reaction time on insects, and how soon after application does it take effect?
Name the two biological controls of insects.
What does webbing in the thatch indicate?
What biological predators do mole crickets have?
What are the four principles of control for soil inhabiting insects? crown and thatch? leaf and stem?
Name the 3 categories of turfgrass insects.
When should you be scouting for insects?
What stage are insects most vunerable? least vunerable?
Be able to identify each insect from the photographs we saw in class. Books and the power point presentation are available in the Independent Learning Center.
MOST IMPORTANT NOTE: Insecticides must reach the target zone in the proper concentration to have the desired effect!
Disease and Pest Control: Diseases & Control
List 5 turfgrass diseases.
List cultural practices for preventing the spreading of turfgrass diseases.
How can you remove rust from turfgrass?
Because slime mold is mostly harmless, what does it do to the plant to prevent it from growing?
What diseases have resistant cultivars?
Which diseases have many chemical control options? Which have few? Why does the number of chemical control options matter? (see table in Christians).
Be able to identify each disease from the photographs we saw in class. Books and the power point presentation are available in the Independent Learning Center.
In most cases, what is your first line of defense against disease?
Why don't we have many turfgrass diseases to contend with in Montana?
_______________ percentages of ornamental grasses are bunch grasses.
Name an ornamental grass with invasive rhizomes.
Name 3 positive attributes of ornamental grasses.
What are the two common misconceptions about ornamental grasses? What is the truth?
What are the culture and maintenance procedures for ornamental grasses?
The presentation on ornamental grasses was assembled by the University of Minnesota Extension Service (Mary Hookenberry Meyer), why can most of the presentation apply to Montana?