EXAM 2 Questions
Be sure to know botanic names, characteristics (texture, density, color),
cultivation practices, and advantages & disadvantages for each species.
Ryegrasses et al.
- Annual Ryegrass has a poor mowing quality and has little use in the
quality turf market. Why, then, is it widely used in some areas?
- Why is perennial ryegrass rarely used alone on lawns and athletic fields?
- Where did perennial rye originate?
- Where is perennial rye best adapted?
- Explain the endophytic relationship in perennial rye.
- What is the mowing quality of perennial rye?
- Are the ryegrasses good for sod production? Why or why not?
- Why is perennial ryegrass used in many mixes?
- What are the primary uses of annual ryegrass?
- Where is perennial ryegrass used for overseeding?
- Smooth Bromegrass, Crested Wheatgrass, Timothy,
Orchardgrass, & Weeping Alkaligrass are not very good lawn or high-maintenance
turfgrasses because most are bunch, coarse textured, & off-colored. What
turfgrass situation would these be suited for?
- What niche is weeping alkaligrass excellent for?
- What characteristic gives Crested Wheatgrass an edge
in highly weedy areas?
- The growth habit of Bermudagrass is ______________ and ________________.
- The scientific name for Bermudagrass is _____________________.
- What is the most widely used and important warm season grass?
- Bermudagrass originated from _______________.
- What does the hair on the ligules signify on Bermudagrass and other warm
- How is the vegetative propagation of Bermudagrass sold?
- Bermudagrass has _____________ salt tolerance.
- What are the general characteristics of a warm
- What level of shade can bermudagrass tolerate?
- Why can Bermudagrass be a weed on the same golf
course or lawn that it is grown?
- What insect is a huge problem in the south, but not
seen up North?
- What microscopic worm is a problem on sandy soils,
especially in Florida?
- Are all nematodes detrimental to turfgrass?
Why or why not?
- How can you tell if you have a nematode problem?
Zoysia, St. Augustine, & Bahia Grasses
- What disease is most detrimental to St. Augustinegrass?
- A _____________ is a microscopic worm that can kill turfgrasses.
- Match the grass with the correct propagation method: Zoysia,
St. Augustine, Bahia **** a) seed, sod & plugs; b) seed only; c) plugs &
chemically treated seed
- _______________ is a good transition zone grass.
- What are two positive attributes concerning Bahiagrass?
- For each grass, list whether there are 'many', 'few', or 'none' cultivars
for St. Augustine, Zoysia, and Bahia
- What distinguishing ligule type does Zoysia have?
- Bahiagrass' growth pattern is ________________.
- What type of texture does St. Augustinegrass have?
- Name a positive attribute of St. Augustinegrass.
- Why is St. Augustinegrass poor for mixes?
- For the cool season grasses, kentucky bluegrass and
fine fescue can be mixed for a lawn that is sunny & shady and have a
reasonably good appearance. Why is it difficult to have such a mixture
for warm season grasses?
- Zoysiagrass is both rhizomatous and stoloniferous.
Why, then, does it take a long time to recover?
- On the map of the US, shade the range of St.
Augustinegrass. Explain why it is contained within that range.
- What can you do to control St. Augustine Decline?
- Seashore paspalum is a cousin of Bahiagrass.
What characteristic makes it a good warm season grass for ocean-side lawns?
Centipede, Carpet, Kikuyu, Buffalo, & Blue Grama Grasses
- In what region does buffalograss thrive?
- What is the origin of centipedegrass?
- What 2 turfgrasses originated in the great plains and is commonly found in
- What grass is the "lazy man's lawn"?
- Of the warm season grasses, which grass is grown for its ornamental value?
- What is the ornamental value of the grass named above?
- What warm season grass originated in Africa and is considered a weed in
- Which warm season grass originated in the West Indies and has one of the
most coarse textures?
- What is the botanic name for Centipedegrass?
- What is the botanic name for Carpetgrass?
- What is the common growth habit for most all warm season grasses?
- What is the botanic name for kikuyugrass?
- Centipedegrass is very slow growing. What does
this mean for the recuperative capacity of Centipedegrass?
- Carpetgrass has a coarse texture, low density, and a
light green color. It is not a very appealing lawn grass. Why then
WAS it used for a lot of lawns?
- What is unique about the reproductive structures of
- Does buffalograss compete well with cool-season
grasses under irrigation? Why or why not?
- There are new types of Buffalograss emerging on the
market whose growth tops out at 5 inches. Considering the other
characteristics added to this new characteristic, what kind of lawn
would you have with buffalograss? What kind of maintenance would the
- What grade, rough or fine, contains the topsoil?
- In grading, what is the transition zone?
- What is the first step in site preparation?
- Bob has a 3 acre farm and he takes a soil sample from his driveway.
Does this give an accurate reading for his whole property? Why or why
- Why would you till the soil? (3 reasons)
- What four forms of mechanical processing are included in tillage?
- What modification can be done to sandy soils to make them hold more
- Explain the differences between clearing, tillage, and grading.
- What is the importance of proper drainage?
- List two methods of tilling.
- What process is used to clear pathogens?
- What are the steps of site preparation?
- What are the steps of turf establishment?
- What is the importance of site preparation?
- What is the importance of clearing a site?
- What should be considered obstructions to turfgrass
when clearing a site?
- Why is it important to contour the subgrade to the
- If you need to bring in topsoil, what is the minimum
depth needed for good turfgrass establishment?
- How can you settle the soil before fine grading?
- What do each of the following do to the soil:
plowing, disking, harrowing, rotatilling?
- Name two reasons for soil modification.
- Why is it difficult to modify clay soils?
Turf Selection & Planting Procedures
- What are the 3 types of turfgrass cultural systems?
- What is a monoculture?
- What is a blend?
- What is a mix?
- What planting procedure involves using a spray mix?
- What are the benefits of sodding versus plugging?
- Can all warm season grasses be seeded?
- List the different ways to plant turfgrass.
- What are the advantages/disadvantages of
monocultures, blends, and mixes?
- Why is it important to know the limitations of a
- What are the advantages of seeding versus
- What turfgrasses are recommended for Montana?
- When seeding, how you be assured of the seed
- What are the steps for seeding a lawn once you have
prepped the site?
- What are the 3 types of seeders? What are
advantages/disadvantages of each?
- Optimum seeding dates for Montana are Aug 1 - Sept
- Spring seeding dates for Montana are May 1 - May 30.
What problems will you encounter at this time versus the fall seeding dates?
- What are the steps for sodding?
- What is sprigging?
- What are the benefits of mulching?
Post-Planting Culture & Renovation
- What is the definition of renovation?
- Give five reasons why you would renovate.
- What are the five major points of post-planting culture?
- What is the recommended seeding rate for non-chemical renovation in
broadcast seeding? Why?
- The two types of renovation are __________________ and
- Why renovate instead of conventional till? (give at least 3)
- Immediately after seeding, to what soil depth would you irrigate?
- How would someone enhance effectiveness of chemical herbicides?
- What two chemicals are commonly used for soil sterilization?
- Even though Round-Up is more potent than DDT, why is Round-Up more
environmentally acceptable than DDT?
- In what type of propagation would you use top dressing?
- What are the benefits of hydroseeding?
- On a newly seeded lawn, when should mowing be
- In a newly seeded lawn, if needed, when should the
first application of fertilizer be made?
- In a newly seeded lawn, how can you overcome and/or
- In a newly seeded lawn, why should you avoid the use
of chemicals? What if you have to use a post-emergent herbicide?
- Before you decide to renovate, what should you try?
- When would you use non-chemical renovation?