EXAM 1 Questions
- Why are some people tearing up their turf lawns?
- What are advantages and disadvantages of turf lawns?
- Who is the biggest polluter and over-waterer when it
comes to turf?
- Why is the golf industry more likely to be less of a
Role & History of Turf
- Where and when were the first 'garden carpets' used?
- In 1200 AD, the sport of _________________ ___________________ was
played on turfgrass.
- List three aesthetic purposes of turf.
- Who invented the first mechanical lawn mower and when?
- Explain and name the three levels of turf grass. What are their
- Where and when was the first agriculture experiment station?
- What does USDA/NTEP stand for? What is the importance of USDA/NTEP?
- What was the first cultivar specifically bred to resist leaf spot?
- What is a cultivar?
- What is the definition of a turfgrass?
- What were early turfgrass management techniques?
- How were the first turfgrasses selected? Why did this technique
- What was the early impetus for growing and cultivating turfgrasses?
- What are possible careers in turfgrass?
- Rank the relative costs of care for each type of turfgrass:
roadside, home, golf, baseball field, parks
- What are the supporting industries of turfgrass?
What we look for in turfgrasses - Turf Components
- What is the name for the amount of arial shoots left after mowing?
- What are the benefits of deep root depth?
- What are the five environmental factors affecting turfgrass growth?
- List three of the six visual components of turfgrass.
- What growth habit sends its shoots above ground?
- What is the difference between resiliency and recuperative capacity?
- In a diagram of a turf plant, identify the: auricle, ligule, blade, leaf
- What makes putting speed faster?
- List and describe one of three differences between agriculture and
- Match the visual component of turfgrass with its definition.
- Visual components can affect one another. Provide an example of this
- Match the functional component of turfgrass with its definition.
How your turfgrass grows - parts of a turf plant, C3 &
- The flowering structure of a grass plant is called the
- C4 plants thrive in ____________________ latitudes, whereas C3 plants
thrive in latitudes which are _________________. (assuming you are in Bozeman,
- Blades of different species vary in _______________, _________________,
_______________, ______________, and __________.
- What is the optimal growth temperature for a C3 and C4 plant?
- What is one reason why C4 plants are preferred over C3 plants?
- What three processes of a plant include the opening and closing of
- Name the three types of inflorescences (seed heads).
- C4 plant, ________ season grasses, use RUBI and _____ to photosynthesize,
while _______ plants, cool season grasses, use only ____________, an enzyme
that helps _______________ go.
- Name four types of collars a leaf blade can have.
- What enzyme is in charge of C3 photosynthesis? How is it less
efficient than C4 photosynthesis?
- List the two types of vernation.
- What is the definition of growth? What is the definition of
development? How do they differ?
- Which type of plant is turfgrass, monocot or dicot?
- On a diagram of a turfgrass seed, show the part that emerges as the root
and the part that emerges as the shoot.
- When a seed germinates, what part emerges first? Why is it important
for this part to emerge first?
- Why doesn't mowing kill turfgrass, but clipping back a dicot can kill it?
- Which type of tillering produces stolon & rhizomes, intravaginal or
- What are the three types of turfgrass growth habit?
- Write the generalized chemical equation for photosynthesis and
respiration. Which process occurs day and night?
- What are the advantages of C3 photosynthesis? C4 photosynthesis?
- Why does the water use of C3 and C4 plants vary significantly?
- What are the 2 peak growth periods for a C3 plant? What is the peak
growth period for a C4 plant?
- What rooting depths do cool and warm season grasses attain? Why are
warm season's root depth much deeper?
How your turfgrass grows (II) - zones, families,
- There are 4 climate zones in the US, list each of them and give an example
of a grass species that does well in that zone. You must use 4 different grass
species to answer the question.
- There is a fifth zone that crosses through the other four zones.
Name this zone and explain how grass grows in this zone. List two
reasons to justify your answer and the latitude it is at.
- ______________ = annual water loss _______________ annual precipitation;
_________________ = precipitation _________ evaporation + transpiration.
- Describe why tall fescue is better for roadsides rather than creeping
- What types of grasses like shade but have a low heat tolerance?
- What grasses have a medium-high heat tolerance and a medium-high cold
- What temperature range is optimum for cool season grasses? warm
- Match these common names to their Genus name: Bluegrass, bentgrass,
ryegrass, fescues, wheatgrass.
- Identify the family under which all turfgrasses fall. Also name the three
sub-families and specify whether subfamilies are suited for warm or cool
- Identify four of the five genus names that fall under the Festucoideae sub
family and tell why they are limited to this group.
- Why do we have an arid domain from the Rocky Mountains to the Midwest?
- What limits the warm season grasses in how far north they can grow?
- Roughly, what percent of all grass species are
- Why is the ranking of establishment vigor important?
What turfgrass ranks high and which low for establishment vigor?
- Where does Kentucky bluegrass generally fall in
ranking turfgrass characteristics such as leaf texture, shoot density, cold
tolerance, heat tolerance, and drought tolerance? Why does this explain
- Even though a turfgrass has a high drought
tolerance, why might it not be acceptable as a lawn turf?
- Most turfgrasses have a similar mowing quality.
What factor would negate the mowing quality?
- Why do perennial ryegrass and bahiagrass have such
poor mowing quality?
- Fine fescue, bahiagrass, and buffalograss all have
low fertility requirements. But a little extra fertilizer can't hurt,
- Creeping bentgrass has poor wear resistance, but is
widely used on golf course greens. What functional characteristic makes
up for the poor wear resistance? The opposite is true of Tall fescue.
Playing it Cool - Kentucky Bluegrass
- Given: Kentucky Bluegrass, seeding rate=1.0 lbs/1000sq.ft.,
1,022,000 seeds/lb. What is the botanic name? How many pounds of
seed do you need to cover 700 sq.ft.? How many kilograms of seed do you
need to cover 700 sq.ft.? How many seeds would you be planting in the
- What is the growth habit of Kentucky Bluegrass? How does it
- What are some of the benefits of the new varieties of Kentucky Bluegrass?
- What are some of the attributes which make Kentucky bluegrass good for a
- What are some of the negatives of Kentucky bluegrass?
- When does the 'blue' color of Kentucky bluegrass become prominent?
- What are the cultivation practices of Kentucky bluegrass? (i.e. life
cycle, seeding rate, mowing height, propagation, sun/shade, soil, moisture)
- Who coined the term 'Kentucky Bluegrass'?
- What are the common characteristics of all
- Where is the origin of bluegrasses?
- Compare the texture, density, and color of Kentucky
bluegrass to Canada bluegrass.
- Why is Kentucky bluegrass an excellent sod former?
- Why does Kentucky bluegrass have so many cultivars
compared to most of the other turfgrasses?
- Does Kentucky bluegrass have many disease problems?
- Why doesn't Montana experience many turfgrass
- What turfgrass disease is most prevalent on Montana
golf courses and lawns?
Seeding & Seeding Rate Calculations
- How would you calculate the area of a triangular plot of dimensions height
= 30ft and base = 15ft?
- How would you calculate the area of a circular trial plot using diameter =
- Creeping Bentgrass has a fall seeding rate of 0.25lb per 1000 sq.ft.
If your plot size is 1300sq.ft. and bentgrass has 6,300,000 seed per pound:
a) what is the pounds of seed needed per trial plot? b) How
many kilograms of seed are needed? and c) How many seeds will you need?
- For Annual Ryegrass, which seeding rate would you use in the fall, 7 or 10
lbs per 1000sq.ft.? Why?
- Set up an equation showing how you would convert 7 lbs to kilograms.
- Using the information in question #4, you are now planting in the spring.
If annual has 201,000 seeds per pound, how many seeds would be needed using a
- Using question #6, how many pounds are needed?
- How many kilograms are needed for question #6?
- How many grams are needed for question #6?
Playing it Cool (Part II) - Other Bluegrasses
- What are the cultivation practices for Canada Bluegrass?
- What is the optimum environment for Rough Bluegrass? What does this
type of environment have the greatest potential for?
- Match the Bluegrass Common name with its Botanic name.
- Where are some likely spots that you would find Canada Bluegrass as a
- Circle the positive attributes of Canada Bluegrass as a turf. A)
dominates on poor soils B) low temperature hardiness C) poor
quality turf D) low fertility E) poor tolerance to
- Annual turfgrass is a 'long day' turfgrass. Explain what is meant by
- Give an example and explain a common disease that affects bluegrasses.
- What is a good region for annual bluegrass to grow? Why?
- What are the cultivation practices for Annual Bluegrass?
- Why is annual bluegrass generally considered a weed?
- Who would use annual bluegrass on purpose?
- Why is rough bluegrass generally considered a weed?
- Why is supina bluegrass highly desirable? Why
is it not planted more often?
Playing it Cool (Part III) - Fescues
- What is the scientific name for tall fescue?
- Which turfgrass has fine fescues mixed with it for shade areas?
- Is the favorable mowing height for fescues higher or lower than most other
- What are the primary uses for coarse fescues?
- Creeping fescue has a _____________________ growth habit and chewings
fescue has a ______________ growth habit.
- What characteristics do all fescues have?
- List at least 4 positive attributes of fine fescues.
- List at least 4 diseases that fine fescues are susceptible to.
- List at least 4 positive attributes of tall fescues.
- Name a least 4 structural features that red, chewings, and hard fescues
have in common.
- Why is hard fescue an easy turfgrass to grow but not highly used?
- What are the two general categories of fescues?
- Compare the texture, density, and color of the
different types of fescue.
- Why does tall fescue have good wear resistance but
poor recovery potential?
- Why do some tall fescues have no insect problems?
- Why is tall fescue more prone to weed invasion?
- In general, are fescues high or low maintenance
Playing it Cool (Part IV) - Bentgrasses
- What are three positive attributes of creeping bentgrass?
- Why does creeping bentgrass have a good recuperative capacity?
- Why is bentgrass a cool season grass?
- Name three negative characteristics of bentgrasses.
- What are the primary uses for creeping bentgrass?
- Why is creeping bentgrass used on gold course greens?
- Creeping bentgrass is ________________. (your classmate with accept
no answer other than luxurious).
- What is the weight in kilograms of creeping bentgrass in seeding
1000sq.ft. of turf with a rate of 0.25 lbs per 1000sq.ft.?
- In identifying bentgrass, what charateristics would help you do this?
- What are the general characteristics of all
- Compare the texture, density, and color of creeping,
colonial, and velvet bentgrass.
- Why do golf courses choose creeping bentgrass over
colonial and velvet bentgrass?
- One of our sources is quote as saying that Colonial
bentgrass will dominate Kentucky bluegrass eventually in the proper climate.
Can this be said for any turfgrass? Why or why not?
- Red Top is turfgrass whose, pardon the pun, hay-day
has come and gone. What purpose was Red Top used for? What is Red
Top now used for?
- Match the bentgrass common name with its botanic
- What bentgrass is emerging as a possible new,
marvelous lawngrass for the temperate part of the country?
- How do we discover new turfgrasses now?