Mike Giroux

Mike Giroux, Interim Department Head and Professor- Ph.D. from the University of Florida, 1992.

Office: 203 Plant BioScience Building
Lab: 124 Plant BioScience Building

Phone: 406-994-7877 (office) 406-994-1876 (lab)
Fax: 406-994-7600

Email Dr. Giroux


Molecular genetics and cereal chemistry of small grain quality. Identifying the genetic and biochemical basis of wheat end use quality traits such as grain hardness and starch quality. Grain hardness primarily impacts wheat milling yield and flour particle size while starch properties influence both end product quality as well as the nutritional properties of wheat based foods.  Methods include transgenics as well as mutagenesis to dissect gene function. Other current research projects include testing the role of variation in genes impacting overall plant growth and development.  Current plant growth and development projects include the development of new variation in the Reduced Height (Rht) gene and testing the role of leaf and seed starch biosynthesis in plant growth and agronomic productivity.


Conduct research relevant to improving grain quality and yield. Utilize modern plant improvement methods such as molecular markers, mutagenesis, and transformation. Teaching responsibilities are Plant Biotechnology (BIOB 430) and Plant Breeding and Genetics (AGSC 441).


  • B.S. Horticultural Sciences, Michigan State University 1988
  • Ph.D. Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Florida 1992


  • American Association of Cereal Chemists
  • American Crop Science Society
  • American Society of Plant Biologists


  • Reviewer for: Various plant science journals
  • MSU Variety Release


  • BIOB 430: Plant Biotechnology (even year spring semesters).
  • AGSC 441: Plant Breeding and Genetics Breeding (odd year spring semesters).


USDA-National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Montana Wheat and Barley Committee, Montana Board for Research and Commercialization Technology, and the Montana Research and Economic Development Initiative.


  • B.S. 6
  • M.S. 1
  • Ph.D. 1


Peer Reviewed Publications

Google Scholar

Hystad, S.M., M.J. Giroux, and J.M. Martin.  2016.  Impact of null polyphenol oxidase alleles on white salted noodles.  Cereal Chemistry 93(3):255-262.

Kammeraad, J.D., M.J. Giroux, A.C. Hogg, and J.M. Martin.  2016. Mutagenesis derived Puroindoline alleles in Triticum aestivum and their impacts on milling and bread quality.  Cereal Chemistry 93(2):201-208.

Hystad, S.M., Martin, J.M., Graybosch, R.A., and M.J. Giroux.  2015. Genetic characterization and expression analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) line 07OR1074 exhibiting very low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 128(8):1605-1615.

Hogg, A.C., J.M. Martin, F.A. Manthey, and M.J. Giroux.  2015.  Nutritional and quality traits of pasta made from SSIIa null high amylose-durum wheat.  Cereal Chem. 92(4):395-400.

Martin, J.M., Hogg, A.C., Hofer, P., Manthey, F.A., and Giroux, M.J. 2014. Impacts of SSIIa-A null allele on durum wheat noodle quality. Cereal Chem. 91(2):176-182.

Schlosser, A.J., J.M. Martin, B.S. Beecher, and M.J. Giroux.  2014. Enhanced rice growth is conferred by increased leaf ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. J Plant Physiology and Pathology 2:4.

Giroux, M.J., K-H. Kim, A.C. Hogg, J.M. Martin, and B. Beecher (2013) The Puroindoline b-2 variants are expressed at low levels relative to the Puroindoline D1 genes in wheat seeds. Crop Science 53:833-841.

Talbert, L.E., P. Hofer, D. Nash, J.M. Martin, S.P. Lanning, J.D. Sherman, and M.J. Giroux (2013) Hard white versus hard red wheats: taste tests and milling and baking properties.  Cereal Chemistry 90(3):249-255.

Hogg, A.C., K. Gause, P. Hofer, J.M. Martin, R.A. Graybosch, L.E. Hansen, and M.J. Giroux (2013)  Creation of a high-amylose durum wheat through mutagenesis of starch synthase II (SSIIa). J Cereal Science 57:377-383.

Kim, K-H., L. Feiz, A.T. Dyer, W. Grey, A.C. Hogg, J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux (2012a)  Increased resistance to Penicillium seed rot in transgenic wheat over-expressing puroindolines.  J Phytopathology 160 (5):243-247. 

Kim, K.-H.,  L. Feiz, J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux (2012b)  Puroindolines are associated with decreased polar lipid breakdown during wheat seed development.  J Cereal Science 56(2):142-146.

Schlosser, A. J., J. M. Martin, L.C. Hannah, and M.J. Giroux (2012) The maize leaf starch mutation agps-m1 has diminished field growth and productivity. Crop Sci. 52(2): 700-706.

Zhang, J., J.M. Martin, P. Balint-Kurti, L. Huang, and M.J. Giroux (2011)  The wheat puroindoline genes confer fungal resistance in transgenic corn.  Phytopathology 159:188-190.

Reynolds, N.P.,  J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux. (2010) Increased wheat grain hardness conferred by novel puroindoline haplotypes from Aegilops tauschii.  Crop Science 50: 1718–1727.

Zhang, J.,  J.M. Martin, B. Beecher, C. Lu, L.C. Hannah, M.L. Wall, I. Altosaar, and M.J. Giroux.  (2010) The ectopic expression of the wheat puroindoline genes increase germ size and seed oil content in transgenic corn.  Plant Molecular Biology 74:353-365.

Reynolds, N.P., J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux.  (2010)  Novel Ha locus, Pina-D1c/Pinb-D1h, affects soft white spring wheat milling and baking.  Cereal Chemistry 87(3):237–242.

Finnie, S.M., R. Jeannotte, C.F. Morris, M.J. Giroux, and J.M. Faubion. (2010) Variation in polar lipids located on the surface of wheat starch.  Journal of Cereal Science 51:73-80. 

Hussein, A-H., J. Bowman, M. Giroux, V. Kanazin, H. Talbert, L. Surber, and T. Blake. (2010)   Quantitative trait loci of acid detergent fiber and grain chemical composition in hulled × hull-less barley population.  Euphytica 172:405-418.

Feiz, L., B.S. Beecher, J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux. (2009c)  In planta mutagenesis determines the functional regions of the wheat puroindoline proteins.  Genetics 183(3):853-860.

Zhang, J., J.M. Martin, B. Beecher, C.F. Morris, L.C. Hannah, and M.J. Giroux (2009) Seed-specific expression of the wheat puroindoline genes improves maize wet milling yields.  Plant Biotechnology 7:733-743.

Feiz, L., H.W. Wanjugi, C.W. Melnyk, I. Altosaar, J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux.  (2009a) Puroindolines co-localize to the starch granule surface and increase seed bound polar lipid content.   J Cereal Science 50:91-98.

Feiz, L., J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux.  (2009b) Creation and functional analysis of new Puroindoline alleles in Triticum aestivum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 118:247-257.

Turuspekov, Y., J.M. Martin, J.G.P. Bowman, B.S. Beecher, and M.J. Giroux. (2008a) Associations between Vrs1 alleles and grain quality traits in spring barley Hordeum vulgare L.  Cereal Chemistry, 85(6):817-823.

Turuspekov, Y.,  B. Beecher, Y. Darlington, J. Bowman, T. K. Blake, and M. J. Giroux. (2008b) Hardness Locus Sequence Variation and Endosperm Texture in Spring Barley. Crop Sci 48 (3):1007-1019.

Martin, J.M., B. Beecher, and M. J. Giroux. (2008a) White salted noodle characteristics from transgenic isolines of wheat over expressing puroindolines. J Cereal Science 48(3):800-807.

Martin, J.M.,  J. D. Sherman, S. P. Lanning, L. E. Talbert, and M. J. Giroux. (2008b) Effect of Variation in Amylose Content and Puroindoline Composition on Bread Quality in a Hard Spring Wheat Population. Cereal Chemistry 85 (2):266-269.

Lacerenza, J.A., J.M. Martin, L.E. Talbert, S.P. Lanning, and M.J. Giroux.  (2008)  Relationship of ethanol yield to agronomic and seed quality characteristics of small grains.  Cereal Chemistry 85(3):322-328.

Feiz, L., J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux. (2008) The relationship between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain hardness and wet-milling quality.  Cereal Chemistry 85(1):44-50.

Campbell, J.B.,  J.M. Martin, F. Crutcher, F.D. Meyer, D.R. Clark, and M.J. Giroux. (2007) Effects on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality of increased puroindoline dosage.  Cereal Chemistry 84(1):80-87.

Martin, J.M.,  F.D. Meyer, C.F. Morris, and M.J. Giroux.  (2007) Pilot scale milling characteristics of transgenic isolines of a hard wheat over-expressing puroindolines. Crop Science 47 (2):497-5040.

Meyer, F.D., L.E. Talbert, J.M. Martin, S.P. Lanning, T.W. Greene, and M.J. Giroux.  (2007) Field evaluation of transgenic wheat expressing a modified ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase  large subunit.  Crop Science 47:336-342.

Smidansky, E.D., F.D. Meyer, B. Blakeslee, T.E. Weglarz, T.W. Greene, and M.J. Giroux. (2007)  Expression of a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit in wheat seeds stimulates photosynthesis and carbon metabolism.  Planta 225(4):965-976.

Wanjugi, H.W.,  A.C. Hogg, J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux. 2007a. The Role of Puroindoline A and B Individually and in Combination on Grain Hardness and Starch Association. Crop Science 47 (1):67-76.

Wanjugi, H.W., J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux.  2007b.  Influence of Puroindolines A and B Individually and in Combination on Wheat Milling and Bread Traits.  Cereal Chemistry 54(6):540-547.

Martin, J.M., F. D. Meyer, E.D.  Smidansky, H. Wanjugi, A.E.  Blechl, and M.J. Giroux (2006)  Complementation of the pina (null) allele with the wild type Pina sequence restores a soft phenotype in transgenic wheat.  Theor Appl Genet 113:1563-1570.

Swan, C.G., F.D. Meyer, A.C. Hogg, J.M. Martin and M.J. Giroux.  (2006b) Puroindoline B Limits Binding of Puroindoline A to Starch and Grain Softness.  Crop Science  46(4): 1656-1665.

Nash, D., S.P. Lanning, P. Fox, J.M. Martin, N.K. Blake, E. Souza, R.A. Graybosch, M.J. Giroux, and L.E. Talbert.  (2006)  Relationship of dough extensibility to dough strength in a spring wheat cross.  Cereal Chemistry 83 (3):255-258.

Swan, C.G., J.G.P. Bowman, J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux.  (2006a) Increased puroindoline levels slows ruminal digestion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch by cattle.  J Animal Science 84:641-650.

Hogg, A.C., B. Beecher, J.M. Martin, F. Meyer, L. Talbert, S. Lanning, and M.J. Giroux. (2005) Hard Wheat Milling and Bread Baking Traits Affected by the Seed-Specific Overexpression of Puroindolines.  Crop Science 45(3): p. 871-878.

Meyer, F.D.,  E.D. Smidansky, B. Beecher, T.W. Greene, and M. J. Giroux. (2004)  The maize Sh2r6hs  ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) subunit confers enhanced AGP properties in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum).  Plant Science 899-911.

See, D.R.,  M. Giroux, and B. Gill.  (2004) Effect of multiple copies of puroindoline genes on grain softness.  Crop Sci. 2004 44(4): p. 1248-1253.

Martin, J.M.,  L.E. Talbert,  D. K. Habernicht, S. P. Lanning, J. D. Sherman, G. Carlson, and M. J. Giroux. (2004) Reduced Amylose Effects on Bread and White Salted Noodle Quality.  Cereal Chemistry 81(2)188-193.

Hogg, A.C., T. Sripo, B. Beecher, J.M. Martin, and M.J. Giroux.  (2004) Wheat Puroindolines Interact to Form Friabilin and Control Wheat Grain Hardness.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 108:1089-1097.

Capparelli, R., G. Borriello, M.J. Giroux, M.G. Amoroso. (2003)  Puroindoline A gene expression is involved in association of puroindolines to starch. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 107:1463-1468.

Lal, S.K., Giroux, M.J., Brendel, V., Vallejos, C.E., and L.C. Hannah. (2003) The maize genome contains a Helitron insertion.  Plant Cell 15:381-391.

Smidansky, E.D., J.M. Martin, L.C. Hannah, A. M. Fischer, and M.J. Giroux. (2003)  Seed yield and plant biomass increases in rice are conferred by deregulation of endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.  Planta 216:656-664.

Lanning, S. P., D. Habernicht, W.E. Grey, G.R. Carlson, M.E. Giroux, J.L. Eckhoff, G.D. Kushnak, R.N. Stougaard, D.M. Wichman, K. Kephart, and L.E. Talbert.  Registration of ‘MTHW9420’ Wheat  Crop Sci., May 2001; 41: 927 – 928

Ram, S., E. Boyko, M.J. Giroux, and B.S. Gill.  (2002) Null Mutation in Puroindoline A is Prevalent in Indian Wheats: Puroindoline Genes are Located in The Distal Part of Short Arm of 5D Chromosome.  Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology.  Vol. 11. 1-5.

Smidansky, E.D., M. Clancy,  F.D. Meyer, S.P. Lanning,  N.K. Blake,  L.E. Talbert, and M.J. Giroux.  (2002) Enhanced ADP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase Activity in Wheat Endosperm Increases Seed Yield. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.  99:1724-1729.

Beecher, B., A. Bettge, E. Smidansky, and M.J. Giroux (2002a) Expression of Wild-Type pinB Sequence in Transgenic Wheat Complements a Hard Phenotype. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 105:870-877.

Beecher, B., J. Bowman,  J.M. Martin,  A.D. Bettge,  C.F. Morris,  T.K. Blake,  and M.J. Giroux  (2002b)  Hordoindolines are associated with a major endosperm texture QTL in Barley (Hordeum vulgare)  Genome 45:584-591.

Beecher, B., E.D. Smidansky, D. See, T.K. Blake, and M.J. Giroux.  (2001)  Mapping and  sequence analysis of barley puroindolines.  Theor. Appl. Genet. 102:833-840.

Campbell, K.G.,  P.L. Finney, C. J. Bergman, D.G. Gualberto, J.A. Anderson, M. J. Giroux, D. Siritunga, J. Zhu, F. Gendre, C. Roué, A. Vérel, and M. E. Sorrells (2001) Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Milling and Baking Quality in a Soft x Hard Wheat Cross.  Crop Science 41: 1275 - 1285.

Hannah LC, J.R. Shaw, M.J. Giroux, A. Reyss, J.L. Prioul, J.M. Bae, J.Y. Lee (2001) Maize genes encoding the small subunit of adp-glucose pyrophosphorylase.  Plant Physiology 127(1):173-83.

Krishnamurthy, K., and M.J. Giroux.  (2001)  Expression of wheat puroindoline genes in transgenic rice confers grain softness.  Nature Biotechnology 19:162-166.

Krishnamurthy, K., C. Balconi, J.E. Sherwood and M. Giroux. (2001). Wheat puroindolines enhance fungal disease resistance in transgenic rice.  Molec. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14:1255-1260.

Lanning, S.P.,  D. Habernicht, W.E. Grey, G.R. Carlson, M.J. Giroux, J.L. Eckhoff, G.D. Kushnak, R.N. Stougaard, D.M. Wichman, K. Kephart, and L.E. Talbert. Registration of ‘Explorer’ Wheat Crop Sci. 2002 42: 986-987.

Martin, J.M., R.C. Frohberg, C.F. Morris, L.E. Talbert, and M.J. Giroux.  (2001)  Milling and bread baking traits associated with puroindoline sequence type in hard red spring wheat.   Crop Science 41:228-234.

Morris, C.F.,  M. Lillemo, G.M. Simeon, M.J. Giroux, S. Babb, and K. Kidwell.  (2001)  Prevalence of puroindoline grain hardness mutations among historical wheats.  Crop Science 41:218-228.

Giroux, M.J.,  L. Talbert, D.K. Habernicht, S. Lanning, A. Hemphill, and J.M. Martin. (2000) Association of puroindoline sequence type and grain hardness in hard red spring wheat.  Crop Science 40:370-374.

Bettge, A.D., M.J. Giroux, and C.F. Morris.  (2000)   Susceptibility of waxy starch to mechanical damage.  Cereal Chemistry 77:750-753.

Morris, C.F., V.L. DeMacon, and M.J. Giroux (1999) Wheat grain hardness among chromosome 5D homozygous recombinant substitution lines using different methods of measurement.  Cereal Chemistry 76(2):249-254.

Campbell, K.G., C.J. Bergman, D.G. Gualberto, J. Anderson, M.J. Giroux, G. Hareland, R.G. Fulcher, M.E. Sorrells, and P.L. Finney.  (1999) Quantitative trait loci associated with kernel traits in a hard X soft wheat cross.  Crop Science 39:1184-1195.

Giroux, M.J. and C.F. Morris. (1998) Wheat grain hardness results from highly conserved mutations in the friabilin components puroindoline a and b.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95:6262-6266.

Giroux, M.J. and C.F. Morris. (1997)  A glycine to serine change in puroindoline b is associated with wheat grain hardness and low levels of starch-surface friabilin.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics 95, 857-864.

Giroux, M.J.,  J. Shaw,  G. Barry, B. G. Cobb, T. Greene, T. Okita, and L.C. Hannah. (1996)  A single gene mutation that increases maize seed weight.   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93(12):5824-5829.

Giroux, M.J., M. Clancy, J. Baier, L. Ingham, D. McCarty, and L.C. Hannah.  De novo synthesis of an intron by the maize transposable element Dissociation. (1994)  Proc. Natl. Acad.  Sci.  91:12150-12154.

Giroux, M.J., and L.C. Hannah.  (1994)  ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in shrunken-2 and brittle-2 mutants of maize.  Mol. Gen. Genet.  243:400-408.

Giroux, M.J., C. Boyer, G. Feix, and L.C. Hannah.  (1994)  Coordinated transcriptional regulation of storage product genes in the maize endosperm.  Plant Physiol.  106:713-722.

Prioul, J-P., E. Jeannette, A. Reyss, N. Gregory, M. Giroux, L.C. Hannah, and M. Causse.  (1994)  Expression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in maize (Zea mays L.) grain and source leaf during grain filling.  Plant Physiol.  104:179-187.

Hannah, L.C., M. Giroux, and C. Boyer.  (1993)  Biotechnological modification of carbohydrates for sweet corn and maize impovement.  Scientia Horticulturae 177-197.

Bae, J.M., M. Giroux, and L. Hannah.  (1990)  Cloning and characterization of the brittle-2 gene of maize.  Maydica 35:317-322.

Callow, P., K. Haghighi, M. Giroux, and J. Hancock.  (1989)  In vitro shoot regeneration on leaf tissue from micropropagated highbush blueberry.  Hortscience 24:373-375.



  • Identify and examine genes involved in controlling wheat end product quality
  • Examine the relationship between increased plant sink strength and productivity
  • Increase milling yield and baking quality by identifying preferred alleles of controlling genes


  • Undergraduate Scholars Program- Average 1-2 students per year
  • Graduate Student Advising- 1 M.S. student, 1 Ph.D. student
  • BIOB 430: Plant Biotechnology (even year spring semesters) AGSC 441
  • Plant Breeding and Genetics Breeding (odd year spring semesters)