Florence V. Dunkel
Florence V. Dunkel. Associate Professor, Ph.D from Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison. 1969.
Office: Room 3 Marsh Lab
Lab: Room 6 Marsh Lab
Office - (406) 994-5065
Fax - (406) 994-7600
My research focuses on the use of plant-based natural products for insect management, particularly related to postharvest ecosystems. Current projects include exploration of Montana wheat varietal resistance to postharvest insects; use of plant-based products with entomopathogenic fungi for management of insects; and use of natural products in the holistic management of malaria in West African (Malian) villages
- Ph.D. Entomology (Minor Zoology), University of Wisconsin Madison, 1969
- M.S. Zoology and Science Education, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1966
- B.S. Zoology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1964
- Montana State University President’s Excellence in Teaching Award, 2013.
- Entomological Society of America (ESA) national Distinguished Achievement Award in Teaching, 2012.
- ESA Pacific Branch Distinguished Achievement Award in Teaching 2012.
- Montana State University President's Award for Teaching Excellence 2011, Honorable Mention.
- Montana State University President's Award for Excellence in Service Learning Award 2009.
- The Andersons Multistate NC-213 Research Award for Outstanding Research Accomplishments in Management of Grain Quality and Security in World Markets 2004.
- Pacific Branch of Entomological Society of America (ESA), Teaching Excellence Award and nominee of branch for National ESA Teaching Award in Entomology, 1996 and 1994.
- Montana State University Burlington Northern Teaching Award, nominee 1993
- Charles Lindbergh Grant Award in Anthropology for combining "Traditional Wisdom and Modern Technology," 1992 (limited to once per lifetime)
- Lawrence University, Appleton, Wisconsin, Distinguished Achievement Award 1989.
- US National Academy of Sciences Visiting Scholar Award to People's Republic of China 1981 (of 7 awards in USA in 1980-81 in all disciplines)
- Graduate Women in Science (GWIS) Eloise Gerry Award 1978
- AAUW Marie Curie Postdoctoral Fellow Award 1975
- Milwaukee Downer College (now Lawrence University) Distinguished Achievement Award in Chemistry 1961
Keynote Speaker Invitations
- United Nations, Food and Agricultural Association, Rome, Italy, invited speaker in Exploring the Potential of Insects as Food/Feed in Global Food Security 2012
- Auburn University/UN World Food Programme's Universities Fighting World Hunger, Exploring Alternative Foods for World Hunger: Potential of Edible Insects. Keynote address speaker 2010.
- World Bank Washington D.C. invited speaker in the Agricultural Innovation Systems Series 2009
- Southeastern Branch Entomological Society of America, Keynote address speaker annual meetings 1995
- Rural Development Corporation of Korea. Keynote address speaker for National Symposium on Grain Elevator/Underground Storage of Agricultural and Marine Products, Seoul, Korea. 25 October 1994.
- Manitoba Society of Entomologists, Keynote Address speaker, Winnipeg 1990
- US Popcorn Institute, Chicago Illinois, Keynote Address speaker for annual meetings, February 1990
- International Commission on Agricultural Engineering, Keynote Address speaker. Rabat, Morocco, November 1990
MEMBERSHIP IN PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
- Entomological Society of America, 1975-present
- Publications Council, 2009-2012, Chair 2012
- International Affairs Committee, representative of the Asian area 2003-2008, 1993-1998.
- Formal Conference on International Affairs 2004, 1994, Symposium Organizer and ChairFormal Conference on Education and Youth 2004, Symposium Organizer and Chair
- Committee for Establishment of the National Center for Cereals and Oilseeds. 1998-1999.
- Committee on Education and Youth 1998-2004
- Section B Physiology, Biochemistry, Toxicology, and Molecular Biology, Organizer and Moderator of Symposia, 2003, 2000; Nominating Committee 2002, 1998; Section Chair 2001, Section Chair Elect 2000; Symposium Committee 2000 (Committee Chair), 1999, 1988-1992; Student Presentations Judge 1989.
- Program Committee for National Meetings 2001
- Formal Conference on Teaching Entomology and Permanent Committee on Education, Chair 1993-1994, Chair Elect and Organizer and Moderator of Conference 1992-1993
- Informal Conference on Stored Product Insects, Organizer and Chair 1986; 1982
- Sigma Xi, Montana State University Chapter, President 1990-1991 Vice-president and Program Chairperson, 1989-1990
- NC 213 (151), member 1978-present: Executive Board member 1988-present.
- NC-151, USDA Committee on Delivery of Quality Grain to Foreign and Domestic Markets, Montana Agricultural Experiment Station Representative, 1989 - present (actually developed the documentation to have Montana received as a member of NC 151 in 1989. Later this became NC-213 and the documentation was repeated by Dunkel to have Montana a participant in NC-213)
- NC-213 (Formerly NC-151), USDA Committee on Delivery of Quality Grain to Foreign and Domestic Markets, Objective B (Biological Aspects of Grain Quality 1988-2002; Effect of Microbes, Insects, and Handling on Cereal and oilseed Quality 2002-present) Co-Chair, 1988-present (=Evaluation of the effects of microbial growth, insect infestation, and handling on quality of cereals and oilseeds) (Co-Chair duties: arrange Section B portion of the program for the annual symposium; moderate Section B part of program; take leadership in the rewrite of Objective B for the Five Year Report and the renewal of the project.)
- NC-213 (Formerly NC-151) 2001 Summer Workshop, USDA Committee on Delivery of Quality Grain to Foreign and Domestic Markets, Local Arrangements Chair
- NC-213 (Formerly NC-151) 1994 Summer Workshop, USDA Committee on Delivery of Quality Grain to Foreign and Domestic Markets, Chair of Organizing Committee and Moderator of Technical session
- NC-151, USDA Committee on Delivery of Quality Grain to Foreign and Domestic Markets, Chair 1992-1993; Vice-Chair 1991-1992; Secretary 1991.
National and International Committees
- Mali Site Committee, IPM Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP). Organizational / Planning Chair 1993; Mali Site Vice-Chair, member of Technical committee 1993-1998; member 1993-2004.
International Projects (Title, Dates, Organization, Country)
- 2007-2010 New Paradigm for Discovery-Based Learning: Implementing Bottom-up Development by Listeni g to Farmers’ Needs and Using Participatory Processes with Holistic Thinking. Principal Investigator. Mali.
- 2005-2007 Discovery-based Secondary Education Opportunities: Facilitating Global Student-to-Student and Teacher-to-Scientist Teaching/Learning. Chief Consultant. Manhattan MT Public Schools. Mali and Mongolia
- 2004-2008 Linking Biotechnology / Bioengineering with Mali-based Agribusiness: Quality Control for Health, Safety, and Exports. 2004 to
- 2008. P.I. l=Institut d=Economie Rurale, University of Bamako Institut Polytechnique Rural de Formation et de Recherche Appliquée (College of Agriculture). more details in CV section research grants. Mali
- 2000-2010 Discovery-based Undergraduate Opportunities: Collaborative Research Support Programs (2000 to 2006) and Facilitating Farmer-to-Farmer Teaching and Learning (2004-2007). PI. l=Institut d=Economie Rurale, Peace Corps, World Vision, Enterprise Works International, Institute Africain de Gestion et de Formation INAGEV.
- 1993-2007 Participatory, On-Farm IPM Research and Dissemination. 1993 to 2007. Co-PI and P.I., l=Institut d=Economie Rurale, Peace Corps, World Vision, Enterprise Works, various grants, more details in CV section on extramural teaching and research grants. Mali
- 1994 Feasibility of Rock Caverns for Large Scale Strategic Grain Storage in Korea. 1994. Consultant. Korea Institute of Geology, Mining, and Materials, Taejon, Korea and the Korean Rural Development Corporation, Seoul, Korea.
- 1988-1993 Development and Use of an Experiment Station for Grain Storage and Legumes in the Saiss Area of Morocco. (Included Building and Testing of Improved and Traditional Above and Underground Grain Storage Structures.) 1988-1993. Research Visiting Professor, Royaume du Maroc Ministére de l=Agriculture et de la Reforme Agraire (Moroccan Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform). Financed by la Direction de la Production Végétale. Rabat, Morocco.
- 1988 Underground Management of Stored Grain and Legumes and other non-commercial pesticidal techniques. 1988. Research Visiting Scientist. ChongQing Institute of Architecture and Engineering , ChongQing, People=s Republic of China.
- 1988-1994 Evaluation of Local Rwandan Plants for Use in Postharvest Protection of Dry Edible Beans. 1988 to 1994. Project Director and Faculty advisor for several projects. ISAR, (National Institute for Scientific Agricultural Research), Rubona, Rwanda, more details in CV section on extramural research grants.
- 1987 Biorational Management of Grasshoppers and Locusts in Africa. 1987. Research Scientist. USAID-Niger / US AID Washington African Emergency Locust and Grasshopper Assistance (AELGA) Project. Niamey, Niger.
- 1984-1992 Storage of Quality Wheat and Barley. 1984-1992. Research Visiting Professor and Faculty Mentor, Institut Agronomique et Vetérinaire Hassan II (Mainly with the Department of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, but also with the Departments of Entomology, Plant Pathology, and Cereal and Food Chemistry). Rabat, Morocco.
- 1983-1987 Rwanda Food Storage and Marketing. 1983 to 1987. Project Director for entire project and Faculty advisor for the Varietal Resistance Component, the Postharvest Loss Component, and the Alternative Storage Methods Component. Ministry of Agriculture. Kigali, Rwanda
- 1982 Integrated Management of Grain and Legumes Postharvest. 1982. Team Leader. Ministries of Commerce and Agriculture Beijing, Peoples Republic of China.
- 1981 Sorbic Acid as a Natural, Locally Available Pest Management Tool for Stored Grain
in China. 1981. Visiting Scholar. Department of Biology, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou,
Peoples Republic of China.
Additional international projects in Korea and Canada are listed in this CV under Honors and Invited Oral Presentations.
- Mentor Committee Chair for Mali Agribusiness Incubator Center and BioTech Program (includes other universities, University of St. Thomas-St. Paul MN, University of California-Davis, University of Bamako-Mali) 2004-2008
- Internationalization Committee, 1994-2004
- Campus-wide Mali Night Chair, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003
- MSU Undergraduate Mali Externs= Committee of Mentors, Chair, 1999-2008
- Montana State University Core Curriculum Committee (Member at Large), 1991-1997
Bioscience Building Committee - Users Group, 1995-1996
- Evaluation Committee for MSU year-abroad students, 1996, 1994
- Core Curriculum Committee (College of Agriculture Representative), 1993-1996
- Faculty Council (Alternate College of Agriculture Representative), 1993-1997
- Search Committee for Director of International Programs, 1993-1994
- International Education Task Force, 1993-1994
- Facilities Planning and Utilization Board, 1993-1994
- Centennial Campaign Committee, 1993
- Scanning Electron Microscope Committee, 1991-1993
- Task Force on Internationalization, 1992-1993
- Search Committee for Department Head of Chemistry, 1992
- Science Teaching Institute of the Rockies Course Development Team, 1991
- Nelson Lecture Series in Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, and Medicine Committee, 1988-1991
- Montana State University Bioscience Center Committee, 1989-1991
- Montana State University Accreditation Committee on the Graduate School, 1989-1990
- Montana Cooperative Extension Service Planning Committee, 1988-1990
College of Agriculture Committees
- Integrated Crop and Pest Management Steering Committee, 1989-1992
- Johnson Hall Space Committee 1988-1992
- USDA-(Cooperative States Research Service) CSRS Departmental Review Committee for Entomology at Montana State University, Chair, 1989
- Entomology Curriculum Committee, 1989-present
- Entomology Seminar Series, Committee Chair, 1992-1994
- Entomology Day Coordinator, 1989-1991
Other University Committees
- National Undergraduate Mali Externs= Committee of Mentors, Chair, 2002-present (Virginia
Tech; University of California-Davis; University of California-Riverside; University
of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota; Chief Dull Knife College, Lame Deer, Montana)
University of Minnesota, Rwanda Project Faculty Steering Committee, Chair, 1983-1987
- AGSC 465R Health, Agriculture, Poverty: Concepts and Action Research(Core 2.0 Research and Creative Experience). This course is part of a 4 year series of courses being developed at Montana State University and modeled by other Land Grant universities and private universities in the US to address root causes and solutions to alleviate material resource poverty worldwide.
Course Description: Learn to explore causes and solutions to rural poverty holistically by discovering the interconnections of health, agriculture, and governance. Gain skills appropriate to one’s own academic major to provide leadership in alleviating poverty worldwide.
- Biology BIOO 106CS (formerly Entomology 102)(2006-present)
- Entomology ENTO 102CS Contemporary Issues in Science: the Impact of Insects on Human Societies (1989-2004). For the years 2005-2011, this course was approved for inclusion in the Contemporary Issues in Science University Core. Includes: weekly 2 hour discovery laboratory; formal, public debates, 60 minutes each, 3 in 2002, 1 in 2003-2005; mentored research in Mali (West Africa) in 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 followed by campus-wide / community-wide presentations; publication of peer-reviewed anthology (200-400 pages) written by students. (Couse was 1989-1995 University Technology Core until this core was discontinued on all MSU courses; and1990-2004 University Global / Multicultural Perspectives Core until this core was discontinued on all MSU courses)
- Entomology ENTO 500 Plant-Insect-Human Interactions: Mali (2004, 2005) includes research in Mali and 50 minute student seminar presentations during classes in US.
- Entomology ENTO 480 Natural Product Toxicology (2001, 2002, 2004) Included public workshop of students= individual research projects, 2001, 2002, 2004.
- Entomology ENTO 489 Teaching Instruction (each semester 1999-present). Teaching Methods.
- Entomology ENTO 570, 490, 489, and 470. Mentoring graduate scholars and undergraduate students (1990-2000) 35 students for total of 60 research credits.From 2001 to 2005, 32 students for total of 87 research credits.
- Biology 400 Seminar. Clinic-based Medical Veterinary Entomology for non-Majors. (2003)
- Entomology ENTO 420 Research Methods (1996).
- Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology PSPP 465R Health, Poverty, Agriculture: Concepts and Action Research. A University Research and Creative Experience core course (Fall 2008)(taught at PSPP 480-01 and PSPP480-02 Spring 2008)
- Entomology ENTO 500 Natural Product Toxicology (1996-7) and other current topics (1990, 1993, 1994)
- Entomology ENTO 530 Insect Form and Function (1996) (team taught) (7 students)
- Entomology ENTO 580. Ecological / Experimental Science: Insects as Tools (1991-2).
Additional University Teaching Experience
- Supervised 4 postdoctorates. 1996 (Ying), 1990-1991(Weaver), 1982 (Kao), 1982 (Peng)
- Graduate advisor for 5 M.S. and 1 Ph.D. (either current or just served as major advisor for portion of graduate work)
- Graduated 0 Ph.D. and 4 M.S. as major or co-advisor professor (1988-present) (Note: Entomology at Montana State University does not have a Ph.D. program)
- Served on 5 Ph.D. and 10 M.S. Graduate Advisory Committees (1986-present)
EXTRAMURAL GRANTS RECEIVED - TEACHING -- for more information visit projects website:
1988 to 2007
- New Paradigm for Discovery-Based Learning: Implementing Bottom-up Development by Listening to Farmers’ Needs and Using Participatory
Processes with Holistic Thinking. 1 September 2007 to 31 August 2010 F. Dunkel. P.I., C. Montagne, Co-P.I. USDA CSREES Higher Education Challenge grant. $462,300.
- Discovery-Based Learning for Undergrads: Facilitating Farmer-to-Farmer Teaching and
Learning. 15 August 2004 to 14 August 2007 F. Dunkel. USDA CSREES Higher Education Challenge grant. $298,876.
- Discovery-Based Learning for Undergrads: Collaborative Research Support Programs.
1 September 2002 to 31 August 2005, F. Dunkel and N. Peterson (changed to C. Montagne in 2005). USDA CSREES Higher Education Challenge
- Linking Biotechnology and Bioengineering with Mali-based Agribusiness: Strengthening Food and Water Quality for Health, Safety, and Exports. 1 July 2004 to 30 Sept 2007. F. Dunkel and Clifford Montagne. Association Liaison Office for University Cooperation in Development. $399,984.This grant tested the Single-Country Model for Graduate Training of Sub-Saharan Africans.
- Marigolds for Montana: Discovery-based Learning Creating Synergy Between Manhattan
Public Schools and Montana State University, Department of Entomology, Natural Product
Toxicology Laboratory. 1 June 2001 to 31 May 2002W. Woolbaugh and F. Dunkel. Toyoto Foundation (Teaching Inquiry with the Latest Technology). $9,500. [$5,900]BRACKETED AMOUNT RECEIVED.
- Science Teaching Institute of the Rockies. Title of F. Dunkel portion: Ecological / experimental science: Insects as tools. June 1992 (1 Month) E. S. Charron (Swanson), F. Dunkel, (Collaborator). National Science Foundation. Verification Letter for grant is available but does not state amount, therefore claiming $0. Total for Dr. Dunkel's Portion of the Project $0. Direct Spending Authority claimed by Dr. Dunkel is $0. Estimated value is $2,500.
- Science Teaching Institute of the Rockies. Title of F. V. Dunkel portion: Ecological / experimental science: Insects as tools. June 1991 (1 Month) E. S. Charron (Swanson), F. Dunkel, (Collaborator). National Science Foundation. Verification Letter for grant is available but does not mention amount, therefore claiming $0. Total for Dr. Dunkel's Portion of the Project $0. Direct Spending Authority claimed by Dr. Dunkel is $0. Estimated value is $3,500.
PUBLICATIONS FROM 1998 TO PRESENT
- Dunkel, F., ed. 2017 Incorporating Cultures’ Role in the Food and Agricultural Sciences. 12 Chapters, 300p. Elsevier Publ. Co. (Academic Press). Companion website https://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals/book-companion/9780128039557 .
- Dunkel, F., **^C. Payne. 2016. Introduction toedible insects. Chapter 1. Pp. 1-27. In In A.T. Dossey, J.A. Morales-Ramos, M.G. Rojas (Eds.). Insects as sustainable food ingredients: production, processing and food applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
- Van Huis, A., F. Dunkel. 2016. Edible insects, a neglected and promising food source. Chapter 21, In S. Nadathur, J. Wanasundara, L. Scanlin, Eds. Sustainable Protein Sources.Elsevier Publ. Co. Boston, Massachusetts. Pp. 341-355.
- Costa Neto, E.M., F. Dunkel. 2016. Insects as Food: History, culture, and modern use around the world. Chapter 2. Pp 29-60. In A.T. Dossey, J.A. Morales-Ramos, M.G. Rojas, Eds. Insects as Sustainable Food Ingredients: Production, Processing, and Applications.Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
- Larew, H., F. Dunkel, C. Montagne, @W. Woolbaugh. Listening across power lines. Chapter 8. In F. Dunkel, Ed. Incorporating Cultures’ Role in the Food and Agricultural Sciences. Elsevier Publ. Co. Boston, Massachusetts. Accepted for publication 1 Oct 2015. Book in production phase 1 Feb 2017.
- Dunkel, F., A. Giusti. 2012. French students collaborate with Malian villagers in their fight against malaria. In J. Thomas, Ed. Etudiants sans Frontières (Students without Borders): Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in French. Amer. Assoc. of Teachers of French. 135–150pp.
- Dunkel,F., *L. Hansen, S. Halvorson, A. Bangert. 2016. Women’s Perceptions of Health, Quality of Life, and Malaria Management in Kakamega County, Western Province, Kenya. GeoJournal. DOI 10.1007/s10708-016-9701-7 Web published open source 4 May 2016. 81, 25 pp.
- Nadeau, L., I. Nadeau, F. Franklin, F. Dunkel. 2014. The potential for entomophagy to address undernutrition. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. online DOI: 10.1080/03670244.2014.930032
- Looy, H., F. Dunkel, and J. Wood. 2013. How then shall we eat? Insect-eating attitudes and sustainable foodways. Agriculture and Human Values. 31(1):131-141.
- Dunkel, F., +K. Coulibaly, C. Montagne, **K. Luong, A. Giusti, +H. Coulibaly, and +B. Coulibaly. 2013. Sustainable Integrated Malaria Management by Villagers in Collaboration with a Transformed Classroom Using the Holistic Process: Sanambele, Mali and Montana State University, USA. American Entomologist. 59:15-24.
- Luong, K., F. Dunkel, +K. Coulibaly, N. Beckage. 2012. Use of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaf slurry as a sustainable dry season management strategy to control the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) in West African villages. J. Med. Ento. 49(6): 1361-1369; DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME12075.
- George, C.M., A.N. Shams, and F.V. Dunkel. 2011. Expansive collaborative: Shea butter case study. North American College Teachers of Agriculture. 55:71-77.
- Halvorson, S.J., Williams, A.L., S.H. Ba, and F.V. Dunkel. 2011. Water quality and water borne disease along the Niger River, Mali: A tudy of local knowledge and response. Health and Place. 17:449-457.
- Dunkel, F.V., S.T. Jaronski, C.W. Sedlak, S.U. Meiler, and K.D. Veo. 2010. Effects of steam-distilled shoot extract of Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae), and entomopathogenic fungi on larval Tetanops myopaeformis (Roder). Environmental Entomology 39:979-988.
- DeFoliart, G., F.V. Dunkel, D. Gracer. 2009. Chronicle of a changing culture: The Food Insects Newsletter. Aardvark Global Publishing. Salt Lake City, UT. 414 pp.
- Lehman, A.D., F.V. Dunkel, R.A. Klein, S. Ouattara, D. Diallo, K.T. Gamby, and M. N’Diaye. 2007. Insect management products from Malian traditional medicine: Establishing systematic criteria for their identification. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 110:235-249.
- Broughton, M.A. and F.V. Dunkel. 2006. Interactions of wheat variety, production environments, and prior insect damage on postharvest resistance to the lesser grain borer. Journal of Economic Entomology. 99:1826-1834.
- Jenkins, D., F.V. Dunkel, and +K.T. Gamby. 2003. Storage temperature of neem kernel extract: Differential effects on oviposition deterrency and larval toxicity of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Environmental Entomology. 32:1283-1289.
- Woolbaugh, W. and F.V. Dunkel. 2003. Community, university, and school research: Marigolds for Montana. The Science Teacher. 70:46-48.
- Dunkel, F.V. and S.T. Jaronski. 2003. Development of a bioassay system for the predator, Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter)[Hemiptera: Anthocoridae] and its use in subchronic toxicity/pathogenicity studies of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. strain GHA. Journal of Economic Entomology. 96:1045-1053.
- Klein, R.A. and F.V. Dunkel. 2003. New pest management frontiers: Linking plant medicine to traditional wisdom. American Entomologist: Forum section.49:7-17.
- Watts, V.M. and F.V. Dunkel. 2003. Postharvest resistance in hard spring and winter wheat varieties of the Northern Great Plains to the lesser grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 96:220-230.
- Richards, D.C., *M.A. Rolston, and F.V. Dunkel. 2000. Population fluctuations of Pteronarcys californicus in the Madison River System. Journal of Intermountain Science. 6:1-9.
- Kumar, A., F.V. Dunkel, *M.A. Broughton, and +S. Sriharan. 2000. Effect of root extracts of Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) on six nontarget aquatic macroinvertebrates. Environmental Entomology. 29:140-149.
- Dunkel, F.V., P.A. Denke, A.J. Dunkel, A.M. Dunkel-Pfaff. 1999. The doctor is in: Medical-Veterinary Clinics for Undergraduates. American Entomologist. 45:1-7.
- Dunkel, F.V. and L.J. Sears. 1998. Fumigant properties of big mountain sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle for stored grain insects. J. Stored Prod. Res. 34:307-321.
- Dunkel, F.V. and D.R. *Richards. 1998. Effect of an azadirachtin formulation on six nontarget aquatic macroinvertebrates. Environmental Entomology. 27:667-674.